Why Prong Collars Hurt

 

Please see additional note at the bottom of the post.

14 inch prong collar

Prong collars, also called pinch collars, are metal chain collars for dogs that include links of prongs whose ends press into the dog’s neck.

When a dog pulls on leash, moves out of position, or is “corrected” with a quick snap of the leash, force is exerted on the dog’s neck through the points of contact of the prongs.

Force is also exerted in these situations when the dog is wearing a flat collar. A correction applied to a dog on a flat collar can also be uncomfortable or even harm the dog.

But when we look at the physics, we can see why the prong collar is more uncomfortable, painful, and potentially damaging.

The differences between the pressure effects of a prong collar and a flat collar on a dog’s neck are due to the different surface areas. The prongs convey the same amount of force from pulling or a correction as the flat collar does, but the force is focused into a much smaller area.

We are aware of this intuitively every day. If you are walking barefoot through your house, would you rather step squarely on a Lego piece or a paperback book? Putting a good portion of your weight on a Lego piece hurts, even if the piece is not sharp enough to cut you. Why can you walk on top of the snow in snowshoes, but if you try it in spike heels they will punch through the snow and the rest of you will probably follow? Your weight is the same, but the force is concentrated.

Here’s why a prong collar works more like stiletto heels than like the webbing of a snowshoe.

Detail of prong on a prong collar

Highly magnified image of a prong on a prong collar

Pressure is All About Surface Area

The prong collar I used to use has 18 prongs. 18 tiny round surfaces combined have a lot less surface area than a flat strip, but how much less?

Force applied to a surface is mathematically computed as pressure.  A common way it is measured in the U.S. is in pounds per square inch, or PSI.  (Technically the force unit is the pound-force or lbf, but people shorten it to pound for convenience.)

Example

I have a flat collar that is 14 inches long and 1 inch wide. Its area is 14.00″ x 1.00″ = 14.00 square inches.

The prong collar that I used on my dog in the past is also about 14 inches long, including 5 inches of chain that has no prongs but can be used to tighten the collar (see the top photo). The collar has 9 pairs of 2 prongs. They are placed over 8 inches of the collar. The ends of the prongs are about 0.08 inches in diameter (See the photo immediately above). They are smoothed in the manufacturing process so they aren’t sharp.

For a first approximation to compare the two, let’s compare the total surface areas of the two collars. We already know that the surface area of the flat collar is 14.00 in². To compute the combined surface area of the prongs we use the formula for the area of a circle (the end of each prong) and multiply that answer by 18 for the 18 prongs.

The area of a circle formula is πr².  The radius is half the diameter of the end of the prong or 0.04 inches. So that’s

pi x (.04) x (.04) ≈ 0.005 in²

Multiply that by 18 to get the combined area of the 18 prongs and you get about 0.09 in².

Surface area of flat collar: 14.00 in²
Combined surface area of 18 prongs: 0.09 in²

Here’s an image that shows those areas in proportion. I drew it at half scale, making the flat collar 7 inches, but how big it renders on your computer will depend on all sorts of factors. The important thing is that the collar and the prongs are in proportion to each other at any size of the image.

chart comparing surface area of prong collars and flat collarsThe respective surface areas mean that the flat collar has about 155 times the area of the prong collar.

The corollary is that the same force applied to both collars causes 155 times more pressure on the prongs than on the flat collar.

In order to plug in a number for the force, I put harnesses on my dogs and experimented with an in-line scale. (They couldn’t believe I was asking them to pull!) Clara, 44 lbs, easily pulled up to 12 lbf and I know she can pull a lot harder, even on a flat collar rather than a harness. So let’s say a small-to-medium dog pulls at a force of 5 lbf.  The force of 5 lbf spread over the 14 square inches of the flat collar yields 0.36 lbs per square inch (PSI). If you instead apply 5 lbf to the prong collar, you get 56 PSI.

Pressure on flat collar under 5 pounds of force: 0.36 pounds per square inch
Pressure on prong collar under 5 pounds of force: 56 pounds per square inch

This is a first approximation, but it’s pretty realistic. You can stop right here if you’d rather not get into the complexities. In most cases, the prong collar has about 155 times the pressure of the flat collar. In one situation described the disparity can be less, but the prong still has 50 times the pressure.

Two Scenarios

In our first approximation, I assumed that the force was applied equally to the entire area of the flat collar and equally to all 18 prongs. But this is not necessarily the case, depending on how the collar is fitted.

Loose Collar

If a flat collar or a prong collar is loose, the force will not distribute over the whole collar.

diagram of the force on a loosely fitted collarYou can see the unequal distribution of the force on a loose collar when a dog pulls. If the dog is pulling forward, most of the force is on the front of the collar, caused by the leash pulling backward. You may even see an area at the back of the dog’s neck where the collar is not touching the neck at all. Obviously, there is zero force from the collar applied there. This affects our pressure calculation since there is less surface area distributing the force over the dog’s neck. For purposes of a working estimate, let’s say that the actual area of the collar on which there is pressure when the dog pulls is the front quarter of the collar.

This is an approximation for several reasons, one among them being that only in one spot of the dog’s neck is the force exactly normal to the arc of the neck. I have represented the differing force in part by the length of the arrows in the image. The force has the largest magnitude in the front and diminishes on the sides of the neck, finally going to zero. There are also smaller forces on the sides of the neck that I am not including. They are present on both collars.

For the 14-inch flat collar, let’s assume that for this approximation the force is distributed over the front 3.5 square inches of the collar. With one-quarter the area, you have four times the pressure. So the flat collar pressure in our example goes up to 1.44 PSI. But guess what? It’s the same situation on the prong collar. The force is distributed over fewer prongs. On my prong collar, it appears that the force would be distributed over 14 prongs rather than 18. (This is a generous estimate. Some of those prongs are barely touching the neck.) That raises the pressure on the prong, but not as large a raise as for the flat collar. But the pressure on the prong collar at 71.40 PSI is still 50 times that of the flat collar.

stuffed dog modeling a loosely fitted prong collar

Prong collar fitted loosely

 

Tight Collar with Slip Chain/Martingale

Professional trainers who use prong collars do not fit them loosely around the neck. In the photo below, I have followed a professional’s instructions and fitted the prong in the closest approximation I can achieve on a stuffed toy. On a real dog, it would probably be even a bit higher and closer to the ears. (Also, some trainers put the leash attachment on the right side of the dog’s neck instead of the back so it is next to them when the dog is in heel position.)

stuffed dog modeling a tightly fitted prong collar

Prong collar fitted per instructions

diagram of the force on a tightly fitted collar

Force on tight collar

First, note that the prongs are putting pressure on the neck without  a force being applied by the leash. The force from the tight fit is roughly equivalent on all the prongs. We can emulate this setup with a tightly fitted flat collar. The comparison would be equivalent to our first example, with the pressure being about 155 times more per square inch on the prong collar.

In addition, the prong collar includes a slip chain. (You can see it in the top photo.) Depending on how the leash is connected to the chain, the handler can apply a snap of the leash—a “correction”—that can pull the ends of the collar together and further tighten the prongs. This force is also distributed over all the prongs. For a comparison, we could add a martingale to our tight flat collar. So for corrections as well, the pressure comparison would be the same as our first example: 155 times more pressure on the prong collar than on the flat martingale collar.

The tightly fitted prong collar is not an improvement for the dog, even though more of the prongs are touching the neck and the pressure is being distributed over more area. This is because the distribution adds another source of pressure, and also because the distribution still does not mitigate the disparities in contact areas between the two collars.

Because of the tight fit and the slip chain, there are three potential forces on the collar.

  1.  The force applied by the tightness of the collar itself. Imagine tying a length of the cord around the calf of your leg, tightening it, and fastening it there. Without having to pull the leg in any direction, you’re exerting force.
  2. The directional force applied if the dog and trainer do not move similarly.
  3. The sudden, high magnitude force from corrections.

Please note that I am not advocating attaching a leash to a flat collar either. Harnesses are much safer. Even if the dog pulls, the force is distributed over an even larger area than a collar, and in less vulnerable places than the neck.

Conclusion

The math shown on this page includes approximations. The forces involved are actually vectors, and the pressures are not evenly distributed. However, both of these factors affect both types of collars. If you want to read more about these additional considerations, check out the prong collar appendix page. The page also has photos of the difference between placing an inert weight on my forearm and placing the same weight on a prong collar on my forearm, and a brief discussion of the spurious “proper fit of a prong collar” argument.

In all cases—even considering the complexities of the math— the pressure on the dog’s neck from by the prong collar is much, much greater than that created by the flat collar. The disparity in the surface areas makes that fact inescapable. The pressure on the prong collar is concentrated into multiple small areas (like spike heels) instead of being dispersed. And in my example, with blunted prongs of a medium size (you can obtain prongs that are smaller and sharper), the pressure is 155 times that caused by a flat collar.

That’s why prong collars hurt.

Thank you to my three pre-readers, who read for comprehensibility, for clear communication, and for the math. All errors and inaccuracies are my own.

NOTE 8/14/17

Some people have disagreed with the large differences in pressure on the different collars that my simple approximation yielded. They seemed high to me as well, which is why I spent time considering things that could change those numbers. I tried to figure out what I had missed. If anyone would like to comment with information about flaws in the assumptions or things that weren’t considered, I will publish the comment and proceed from there. I don’t want to put out bad information. 

Others have objected to using the same force on both collars. I may write more about that later, but for now, that is the model I’m using, for ease of comparison and other reasons. The small amount of constant force I used for the calculations is a reasonable one, even for some dogs while wearing a prong collar.

Copyright 2017 Eileen Anderson

Share Button
Posted in Punishment, Punishment culture | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

Five Years of Eileenanddogs

Fifth Anniversary of Eileenanddogs blogFive years ago today I published my first blog post.

It included this training blooper movie I made, still one of my favorites. If you’d just like a smile today, stop right here and check out the video.

When I set out to be a blogger, the main thing I knew was that I had something to say. A lot of things to say. The problem was that I was in a strange position to be saying them. I am not a professional trainer, and it’s pretty safe to say that I never will be. I caught the training bug, though. I started thinking about this stuff and couldn’t stop.

What I am is a writer. Maybe born to be, and certainly nurtured to be. Most important: that’s how I naturally express myself now, however it happened. And it turns out that this is now the main place I do it. I love it here. I am privileged to write and edit professionally for organizations and individuals, and my book was a labor of love,. But for “dessert” I always come back and write on my blog.

Summer, Clara, and Zani

Reactive Posts

It’s partly my friend Marge’s fault that I started the blog. She kept telling me to do it. I made various arguments against it. One was the “I’m not a professional trainer” argument. Also, I remember telling her, “I’m reactive. I don’t come up with stuff creatively. I just write about stuff that I read that ticks me off.” She said, “That’s OK!”

Turns out it was.

I have indeed written a lot of reactive posts. This is the first one, I think. “But What If Your Dog Runs Out Into Traffic?”

Five years later would write it differently, including that it wouldn’t be so long. I can answer that silly question much more succinctly now!

Zani

Another thing you can notice in the “Traffic” post is that I didn’t know the term, “management” when I wrote it.  Management means steps we take to put humane limits on our dogs’ behavior that aren’t intended to train behaviors. Like grabbing the dog if he runs into traffic, grin. Although better management methods usually involve more planning.

My favorite “reactive” post (and there are a lot of them!) is this one:

But We Don’t Give Our Kids a Cookie Every Time They Tie Their Shoes!

This post won me recognition with a Freshly Pressed award (now called Discover) from WordPress.com. In investigating it I learned a lot of interesting and positive stuff and was pleased to be able to share it.

Body Language Posts

Clara, Zani, and Summer

But it turns out that not all my posts are reacting to things people say that I disagree with. With three dogs I can film and comment on lots of interesting dog behavior, besides the stuff we do when training.

My favorite is this one:

Dog/Dog Resource Guarding in Slow Motion

The technical definition of resource guarding behaviors mostly includes overtly aggressive or threatening behaviors. But I’ve learned from my teacher and through observation that many dogs are expressing mild guarding behaviors a lot of the time. The ways that dogs “pull their punches” are fascinating to me. When you think about it, it’s a very good survival trait when dogs can work things out without overt aggression. I’m not forgiving my very bossy dog, Clara, though. She is a master at this, but I intervene a lot since she is quite capable of making my other dogs miserable through these “nonaggressive” but still obnoxious behaviors. (There’s a classic at 1:13 in the blooper video above.)

My body language post that got the most attention was this one:

Dog Facial Expressions: Stress

This post was put together with photos (actually video stills) of poor Clara at a particularly scary vet visit.  This post got picked up and sent viral by an extremely popular NSFW page that was outside the dog training community. They may have posted it as a joke, but that’s OK with me. The post is still naturally popular within the training community, and I let trainers and other educators use the photos for educational presentations and other good causes.

Clara

Here’s the story of how Clara came into my life as a feral puppy.

When I started the blog, I had had Clara for almost a year and I figured I would be writing about and presenting lots of videos about her socialization.

But I found that her socialization sessions were too challenging for me to be carrying around a video camera, and a lot of the process would have been very boring to view anyway. I did finally compile a video of her progress and posted about it.

She has come a long, long way. But at home, she’s just a regular dog. So you see a lot more of “regular dog” Clara than “amazing progress for a feral puppy with many strikes against her” Clara.

Socializing a Formerly Feral Dog

Clara

Most Popular Posts

I have published 272 posts in five years including this one, and have 163 in the oven.

My five most popular posts of all time are as follows:

Does Your Dog REALLY Want to be Petted? 203,408 views
Ringing the Bell to Go Out: Avoid These 4 Common Errors! 102,642 views
The Secret to Quick Non-Crumbly Homemade Dog Treats 90,560 views
Before You Share That “Cute” Dog and Baby Picture… 42,759 views
Operant Learning Illustrated by Examples 38,237 views

I have no idea why the ringing the bell one got so popular. This year it’s actually ahead of the petting post. The irony is that I never successfully taught my dogs to ring the bell to go out. To ring it, sure. But I never successfully completed the training. They all have their separate ways to ask, though, and none of them is obnoxious. And I can sure tell you what some of the mistakes with the bell-ringing thing are!

Books, Webinars, Magazines, and Mentorships

Summer

I’ve had a lot of other great projects going on during these five years. I’ve written a book on canine cognitive dysfunction, and it won a Maxwell Award for 2016. Remember Me? Loving and Caring for a Dog with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction  is available in paperback, hardcover, and all major electronic formats.

I co-produced a book with Marge Rogers out of my series of blog posts based on her puppy-raising videos. Lessons for My Puppy is available as an iBook and PDF, and it’s free!

I thank the Pet Professional Guild for believing in me early on and hiring me to do two different webinars, one on thresholds in dog training and the other on canine cognitive dysfunction.

Over Threshold: The Changing Definition

Canine Cognitive Dysfunction: What Owners and Trainers Need to Know

And this seems like a nice time to announce that—if I understand the schedule correctly—I will have articles in the next five issues of Clean Run magazine!

Finally, the International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants came up with this great idea of a writing mentorship invited me to be the mentor! I had a blast with my writing mentees and auditors for eight weeks starting in January of this year. I’m pleased to announce that the next writing mentorship is scheduled to start on January 14, 2018. I will do another one in 2018 if I can schedule it, but I can’t promise. So if you are interested in a working mentee spot, it would be wise to sign up soon for January.

To My Readers

Thank you. It’s an amazing time to be a writer, in this era where one can get instant feedback after hitting a blue “Publish” button. It’s a little scary at times, but you kind and curious people keep me going. I love the thoughtful comments, the kindly criticism, even the pointed criticism when it’s on the mark. I love the building of community and making new friends.

Thanks for reading and responding.

In Memoriam

In memory of my friend Anne Springer, who passed away recently, here is her blog post on how to pick a dog trainer. The best on the subject I have ever read. Coincidentally, she published it on this date in 2013.  Miss you, Anne.

Cricket, RIP May 31, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related Post

Eileenanddogs’ First Birthday!

Copyright 2017 Eileen Anderson

 

 

Share Button
Posted in Announcement, Event announcement, Milestone, Retrospective | Tagged | 16 Comments

Am I a Wimp for Caring About My Dog’s Emotions?

Maybe it’s my upbringing, but I always flinch a little bit at the use of the language of emotions when talking about training. So even though my relationships with my dogs are primary and important, I hesitate to talk about “bonds” or “trust.”  It sounds so…I don’t know…California. (I can say that because I’m from there.)

The thing is that most of the people who are out there talking about magical energy and bonds and leadership and trust and all those other things we can’t describe concretely are Continue reading

Share Button
Posted in Aggression, Dog body language, Fear, Resource guarding, Stress Signals, Training philosophy | Tagged , | 12 Comments

Helping Your Dogs Get Ready for Fireworks

Canada Day and U.S. Independence day are both coming up. I’ve updated my fireworks preparation page with some new tips on keeping dogs as safe and calm as possible. Check it out and make your preparations!

You can access the page below. Feel free to share!

6 Ways to Prepare your Dog for Fireworks

Summer cheese 2

© 2017 Eileen Anderson

Share Button
Posted in Fear, Management, Sound sensitivity | Tagged , , , | Comments Off on Helping Your Dogs Get Ready for Fireworks

Preventing Dog Reactivity with a Barrier

My back door opens onto an elevated wooden porch. There are ten steps down to the yard. The top of the steps provides a view into the neighbor’s yard, which can be a very interesting place. Clara runs there when anything might be happening, primed to react. In the picture above Continue reading

Share Button

Easy tweets! (They include a link to this post)

  • Visual barriers can prevent #dogs from practicing #reactive behaviors!
  • Preventing #dog #reactivity: what a difference some cardboard can make!
Posted in Arousal, Dog body language, Dog training hints, Management, Reactivity | Tagged , , , | 17 Comments

Why Prong Collars Hurt

14 inch prong collar

Prong collars, also called pinch collars, are metal chain collars for dogs that include links of prongs whose ends press into the dog’s neck.

When a dog pulls on leash, moves out of position, or is “corrected” with a quick snap of the leash, force is exerted on the dog’s neck through the points of contact of the prongs. Continue reading

Share Button
Posted in Punishment, Punishment culture | Tagged , , | Comments Off on Why Prong Collars Hurt

The Opposite of Force

Clara's pool provides enrichment she can choose when she wants

Clara playing by herself in her pool

I think I’ve figured something out.

I continue to see the concept of choice bandied about the positive reinforcement-based training world. It can be a code word for a setup that includes negative reinforcement. “I’m going to do something physically unfamiliar or unpleasant to you and you have the choice of staying here and getting a piece of food or leaving and being relieved from whatever it is I’m doing.” I’ve suggested that this is not a laudable kind of choice; as trainers we can use our skills and take our time so that the dog doesn’t want to leave in the first place.

It can also refer to human-centric preference tests, many of which are subject to extreme bias.

But here’s my new realization. Continue reading

Share Button
Posted in Choice, Enrichment, Training philosophy | Tagged | 14 Comments

Are You SURE Your Dog Prefers That Food Toy?

It just occurred to me that it is super easy to make assumptions about how much our dogs prefer a particular food toy, or even whether they really enjoy them that much.

Don’t yell at me. To be clear: I use food toys for my dogs every single day. I think they can be enriching and that they are ethical things to use.

But food toys present us with a funny little problem. Continue reading

Share Button
Posted in Classical conditioning, Enrichment, Food toys, Reinforcement | Tagged , , | 19 Comments

Tossing Cookies: Delivering Treats and Toys in Dog Training

One thing I notice about experienced trainers is how well they can deliver food to dogs. Usually their hand motions are both fast and quiet, and the food goes just where they intend. This may sound like a minor issue, but it’s not. The mechanics of training are the key to successful, efficient training and a non-frustrated dog.

The way we deliver food in training needs to further our goals. There are times when Continue reading

Share Button

Easy tweets! (They include a link to this post)

  • You can practice throwing reinforcers without your dog & improve your accuracy. #dogtraining
Posted in Dog training hints, Food reinforcers, Treats | Tagged | 13 Comments

I Failed to Falsify—Twice! (Falsifiability Part 2)

Graffiti on a brick building that says, "False"

Photo credit carnagenyc: see bottom of page

I want to share just how tricky this falsification stuff can be. In the last few weeks I’ve received two comments from readers that pushed me to rethink some things I’ve written. They were both presented very constructively, offering some ideas in the spirit of good dialogue and the search for truth. They included fascinating questions that Continue reading

Share Button
Posted in Choice, Critical Thinking, Research, Terminology | Tagged , , | 6 Comments